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Taiwan is a medium-sized archipelago in East Asia, located at 23°30N, 121°00E and running through the middle of the Tropic of Cancer (23°5N). It makes up the majority of
the territories effectively under the control of the Republic of China.
The main island of the archipelago is Taiwan Island, which comprises about 98 % of the current jurisdiction of the Republic of China; the other 2 %[citation
needed] consists of the smaller islands of the archipelago - Orchid Island and the Pescadores, along with the tiny islets - Green Island and Hsiao Liuchiu. The archipelago
is separated from mainland China by the Taiwan Strait, which ranges from 220km at its widest point to 130km at its narrowest point. Taiwan is bounded by the Bashi
Channel in the south, the East China Sea in the north, and the Pacific Ocean in the east.
The islands of Kinmen, Matsu, Wuchiu, etc. across the Taiwan Strait, and Pratas and Taiping in the South China Sea, are also administered by the Republic of China. These
islands are however not part of the Taiwanese archipelago. Taiwan's area is 35,980 km² of which 32,260 km² is land and 3,720 km² is territorial water claims, making it
slightly smaller than the combined area of Maryland and Delaware, or slightly bigger than territory of Belgium. It is 394 km (244 miles) long and 144 km (89 miles) wide. It
has a coastline of 1,566.3 km. The ROC claims an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles (370 km) and a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles (22 km).
Climate and terrain
Shiukuluan River - Hualien CountyThe climate on the island is generally marine and varies widely by season in the Northern part and the mountain areas. The South,
however, belongs to the tropical belt and is all year warm and humid. From May to June it's rainy season, with almost daily showers. From July to October typhoons are most
likely to strike, on average about four direct hits per year. In the Northern part of Taiwan, cloudiness is persistent and extensive during the year; in the south, however, the
rainy days are always in the summer time, and 90% of the annual precipitation falls during this period. The annual rainfall is usually more than 2500 mm, close to 5000 mm
in some Eastern regions.
The terrain in Taiwan is divided into two parts: the flat to gently rolling plains in the west, where 90 % of the population lives, and the mostly rugged forest-covered mountains
in the eastern two-thirds. The highest elevation in Taiwan is Jade Mountain (Yu Shan), at 3951.798±0.072m in year 2003. .
The western mountain forests are very diverse, with several endemic species such as Formosan Cypress (Chamaecyparis formosensis) and Taiwan Fir (Abies
kawakamii), while the Camphor Laurel (Cinnamomum camphora) was once also widespread at lower levels (now mostly cleared for agricultural land). Prior to major
Taiwanese economic success, the mountainous areas held several endemic animal species and subspecies, such as the Swinhoe’s pheasant Lophura swinhoii, Taiwan
blue magpie Urocissa caerulea, Formosan Black Bear (Selanarctos thibetanus formosanus), the Formosan Sika Deer (Cervus nippon taiwanensis or Cervus nippon
taiouanus) and the Formosan landlocked salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus). A few of these are now extinct, and many others have been designated endangered
Seven national parks in Taiwan showcase the diverse terrain, flora and fauna of the archipelago. Kenting National Park on the southern tip of Taiwan contains uplifted coral
reefs, moist tropical forest and marine ecosystems. Yushan National Park has alpine terrain, mountain ecology, different kind of forest that changes with altitude, and
Remains of ancient road. Yangmingshan National Park has volcanic geology, hot springs, waterfalls, and forest. Taroko National Park has marble canyon, cliff, and fold
mountains. Shei-Pa National Park has alpine ecosystems, geological terrain, and the valley streams. Kinmen National Park has lakes, wetlands, coastal topography, flora
and fauna-shaped island. Dongsha Marine National Park has the Pratas reef atolls for integrity, a unique marine ecology, biodiversity, and its a key habitat of marine
resources of South China Sea and Taiwan Strait.
See also: List of national parks of the Republic of China , List of mountains in Taiwan , and Endemic species of Taiwan
Natural resources on the islands include small deposits of gold, copper, coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos. The island is 55 % forests and woodland
(mostly on the mountains) and 24 % arable land (mostly on the plains), with 15 % going to other purposes. 5% is permanent pastures and 1 % is permanent crops.
Natural hazards and environmental issues
Earthquakes and typhoons are the two major natural hazards on the island. In September 21, 1999, an earthquake occurred in the center of Taiwan. The death toll in this
catastrophe reached more than 2,000. Meanwhile, mudslides resulting from intensive rain caused by typhoons often leads to disaster.
Current environmental issues include: air pollution; water pollution from industrial
emissions and raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; and trade in
endangered species. Though regulation of sulfate aerosol emissions from
petroleum production is becoming stringent, acid rain remains to be a threat to the
health of the residents and the forests. Scholars in Taiwan point out that more than
half of its acid rain is actually brought by monsoon rains from mainland China. 
See also: Chi-Chi earthquake
Bracing on the side of a mountain in Chiayi County
prevents landslides caused by typhoons
Shiukuluan River -